CSS is currently being implemented as a strategy to mitigate atmospheric emissions of CO2, and help stabilize atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In CCS, carbon dioxide is separated and captured from an industrial process stream, before being compressed and injected deep underground into geological formations (e.g. hydrocarbon or salt-water filled (saline) reservoirs) for storage on time scales of 1,000 years or more.

In the natural environment animal tissues harbor diverse communities of microbes. Increasing evidence suggests these communities are shaped by host-selection and provide beneficial functions including nutrient cycling and pathogen protection. How such tissue-specific microbial communities are assembled and maintained remains a central question for understanding the role of microbes in health and disease.

Coral reefs provide critical ecosystem services including supporting fisheries, nutrient cycling, sand production, shoreline protection, and tourism. However, many global coral species face risk of extinction in the coming century due to habitat destruction and the emergence of coral diseases. A coral colony is inhabited by a diverse microbial community including symbiotic algae, bacteria, archea and viruses, which along with the coral animal makes up what is known as the "coral holobiont". It has been hypothesized that the algal and microbial components of this holobiont may form an ecosystem within the coral that supports its health. Breakdown of the balance of this internal ecosystem may contribute to the emergence of coral disease. Through characterization of coral-associated microbial communities we are working to better understand the diveristy, dynamics, and interactions between components of the coral holobiont during periods of coral health, stress and disease. We hope that improved knowledge of the dynamics and drivers of this internal ecosystem will enable better prediction of coral response to anthropogenic stressors and enable better management of these important global resources

Cyanobacterial toxins are a public health risk from recreational exposure to freshwater. Freshwater Reservoirs, such as the Kranji Reservoir in Singapore (pictured), harbor both Microcystin-producing cyanobacteria and those that lack the genes needed for toxin production. We are interested in the following questions: Under what conditions are cyanobacterial toxin biosynthesis genes activated? And, Under what conditions do toxin-producing cyanobacteria have a competitive advantage in the Kranji Reservoir? Understanding the molecular ecology of toxin production will improve prediction of high toxin/high risk algal blooms